# Question 12 pts Which of the following is the best description of mutations? Group of answer...

###### Question:

Question 12 pts

Which of the following is the best description of mutations?

All mutations that arise in the body of an individual get passed on to their offspring

They sometimes arise randomly

They are the source of completely new alleles arising in a population

All of the choices are correct

Beneficial ones always appear if an organism needs to adapt to new environmental conditions

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Question 22 pts

________ are alternate versions of a single gene that code for different versions of a trait.

Mutations

Alleles

Species

Recombinations

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Question 32 pts

An organism that has many offspring that go on to reproduce themselves has high _____.

fitness

evolution

mutations

alleles

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Question 42 pts

Imagine that the malaria parasite disappeared worldwide. Based on what you know about the sickle cell alleles and malaria, how would you expect Hb allele frequencies (HbA and HbS) to change in the human population once malaria was no longer a threat?

The frequency of HbS allele would decrease in the population

More people would have sickle cell disease over time

People with HbS HbS would now be favored in the population

The frequency of HbA allele would decrease in the population

It would still be very beneficial to have the genotype HbA HbS

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Question 52 pts

In order to determine that evolution is occurring in a population, you must :

examine a population at only one point in time

always see adaptations arise in a population as a result of evolution

document changes in allele frequency in a population over multiple generations

declare that a population has become two separate species

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Question 62 pts

Fur color in rabbits is genetically determined. All rabbits in a starting population are brown.

A mutation occurs that leads one brown rabbit to produce white fur during the winter. White fur allows the rabbit to better hide in the snow, avoid predation, survive and reproduce.

After many generations (1000+ years), the majority of rabbits in the population produce white fur in winter. Based on this, which of the following statements is TRUE?

The new allele frequencies in the rabbit population resulted from natural selection

The alleles coding for a white winter fur increased over time in the population

The rabbit that produces white fur has higher fitness than rabbits that do not change fur color in the winter.

All of the choices are correct

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Question 72 pts

A historical population of moths was light colored and well-camouflaged in their natural environments.

With increased industrial pollution from factories, dark soot increased in the air, and dark-colored moths became better camouflaged than light colored moths.

As the industrial revolution progressed and more soot was in the air, the color in the moth population shifted to be dark overall.

What is this an example of?

Directional selection

Disruptive selection

Stabilizing selection

Both Stabilizing AND Directional selection

Both Disruptive AND Directional selection

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Question 82 pts

Robins typically lay clutches with 5 eggs.

Larger clutches of eggs were selected against because they resulted in malnourishment and death in chicks (too many mouths to feed!).

Smaller clutches were selected against because they often resulted in no viable offspring due to none of the eggs hatching.

What is this an example of?

Disruptive selection

Both Stabilizing AND Directional selection

Both Disruptive AND Directional selection

Directional selection

Stabilizing selection

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Question 92 pts

Which of the following modes of natural selection occurs when individuals at both extremes of the distribution for a given trait have equally high fitness?

Stabilizing selection

Disruptive selection

Both Disruptive AND Directional selection

Directional selection

Both Stabilizing AND Directional selection

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Question 102 pts

Which of the following modes of selection will  decrease the overall genetic variation in the population?

Both Stabilizing AND Directional selection

Directional selection

Disruptive selection

Stabilizing selection

Both Disruptive AND Directional selection

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Question 112 pts

Large ships carry water in “ballast” tanks to improve stability and balance while sailing. A ship in India takes on ballast water and sea anemones are picked up in the water.

When a ship arrives to its destination in the Caribbean, the ballast water is released into the ocean, and the sea anemones are released into the water. The sea anemones join a Caribbean population of the same species of sea anemones and interbreed with them. This is an example of:

gene flow (migration)

natural selection

intersexual selection

non-random mating

founder effect

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Question 122 pts

Hunting in the late 1800s reduced the population of Northern elephant seals to very few individuals. Since then, the seal population has increased to over 30,000 seals.

However, the Northern population now has much less genetic variation compared to a population of Southern elephant seals that was never intensely hunted. The case of the Northern population is an example of:

gene flow (migration)

founder effect

population bottleneck

natural selection

non-random mating

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Question 132 pts

The only mechanism of evolution that always leads to adaptive change in a population is _____.

genetic drift

founder effect

gene flow (migration)

population bottleneck

natural selection

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Question 142 pts

The beautiful feathers of male birds of paradise have become increasingly exaggerated and decorative throughout evolution. This is because females prefer to mate with the males that display the most impressive feathers. This leads to increased reproductive success for males that have the best feathers. This is an example of:

disruptive selection

intrasexual selection

genetic drift

intersexual selection

gene flow (migration)

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Question 152 pts

The type of non-adaptive evolution that makes allele frequencies more similar between populations or increases the diversity of alleles in an existing population is _________.

founder effect

natural selection

population bottleneck

gene flow (migration)

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Use this information to answer the next 4 questions:

In a population of 50 poisonous frogs, there is a gene that controls coloration on their skin.

One version of the gene codes for warning coloration, which protects the frogs from predators.

One version of the gene codes for normal, non-warning, coloration.

Each frog possesses two alleles for the skin coloration gene (one inherited from their mom and one inherited from their dad).

Information about the genotypes of the frogs in the population is shown below:

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Question 162 pts

Refer to the poisonous frog information above.   How many total alleles are in the population?

10 alleles

40 alleles

50 alleles

100 alleles

30 alleles

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Question 172 pts

Refer to the poisonous frog information above.   Which genotype is associated with warning coloration?

Both Gg and gg

Gg

Both GG and Gg

GG

gg

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Question 182 pts

Refer to the poisonous frog information above.   What is the frequency of the allele for warning coloration in this population? Hint: Do math!

0.8 or 80%

0.2 or 20%

0.4 or 40%

0.5 or 50%

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Question 192 pts

Refer to the poisonous frog information above.   What would you expect to happen to the frequency of the ‘g’ allele if natural selection is acting on this frog population? Think! Which allele will enhance fitness?

The frequency of the ‘g’ allele will stay the same in frequency the population gene pool

The ‘g’ allele will INCREASE in frequency the population gene pool

The ‘g’ allele will DECREASE in frequency the population gene pool

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Question 202 pts

You collect a pair of organisms. If you were testing the phylogenetic (molecular) species concept, you would definitely need to:

You would need to do all of these things

determine if the pair of organisms looked alike

determine the genetic and evolutionary relatedness among the organisms

determine if the offspring from the pair are fertile

determine if there are pre-zygotic barriers preventing the organisms from mating

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