1 answer

In short essay format. Provide a summary overview of Crohn’s disease, include clinical manifestations and complications...

Question:

In short essay format.

  1. Provide a summary overview of Crohn’s disease, include clinical manifestations and complications associated with this disorder.
  2. Discuss metabolic syndrome and how the combination of factors increases the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
  3. Compare and contrast ischemic strokes with hemorrhagic strokes. Provide at least three similarities and three differences.
  4. Pick a degenerative neuro disorder from Chapter 11 and provide an overview summary, including the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnostic procedures.
  5. Explain the difference between ligament sprain and a muscle strain. Include diagnostic test and treatment strategies for both conditions.

Answers

CROHN'S DISEASE

Crohn's disease is an idiopathic chronic transmural inflammatory process of bowel that can affect any part of gastro intestinal tract from the mouth to rectum. .males and females are equally affected.smokers are three times more likely to develop this disease.and also it occurs due to genetic factors ,chronic infection ,etc.

clinical features:

  • perforation of small intestine resulting in a local or diffuse peritonitis
  • fulminant colitis
  • acute ileal inflammation and symptoms and signs resembling those of acute appendicitis
  • commonly present with features of chronicity
  • pain in right ileac fossa
  • intermittent fever,weight loss
  • anemia
  • fistulation may occur into adjacent loops of bowel and most notably the sigmoid loop may become adherent to the affected terminal ileum
  • colitis
  • proctitis
  • recto vaginal fistula
  • perianal abscesses and fistula

complications

it includes intestinal complications

  • stricture
  • fistula
  • perforation
  • neoplasm
  • abscess

systemic complications includes

  • arthritis
  • uvelitis
  • oxalate stones
  • pyoderma gangrenosum
  • erythema nodosum
  • sclerosing cholangitis

post operative complications includes

  • adhesiona obstruction
  • anastomotic recurrence
  • anastomotic fibrostenosis

the disease can be diagnosed using

  • colonoscopy
  • capsule endoscopy
  • laboratory investigations includes
  • anemia ,fall in serum albumin,magnesium,zinc and selenium
  • radiological test can also be done

treatment can be done by

1 symptomatic treatment

2 medications

3 life style changes includes smoking cessation

4 regular exercise

METABOLIC SYNDROME

metabolic syndrome is a serious health condition that occurs when a person experienced  a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease,stroke and diabetes.metabolic syndrome includes high blood pressure,high blood sugar excess body fat around the waist,and abnormal cholesterol levels.the syndrome increases a person's risk of heart attack and stroke.

clinical features:

  • the patient may experience signs and symptoms of diabetes includes increased thirst and urination,fatigue and blurred vision
  • due to this increased blood pressure and blood sugar level the patient having higher risk of cardiovascular diseases too...

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ISCHEMIC STROKE AND HEMORRHAGIC STROKE

ISCHEMIC STROKE HEMORRHAGIC STROKE
blood clot or fatty buildup may cause blockage blood clot cause blockage
cardiovascular etiology hypertension etiology
raised ICP is prominent raised ICP is absent
enhancement is ring type enhancement is gyral type
ventricular blood is present

ventricular blood is not present

DEGENERATIVE NEURO DISORDER

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

A disease in which the immune system eats away at the protective covering of nerves.resulting in nerve damage disrupts communication between the brain and the body

etiology:

exact cause is unknown.but it is believed that it is an immune mediated process

  • lack of vitamin d
  • environmental and industrial toxins exposure
  • genetic cause
  • smoking
  • stress

PATH PHYSIOLOGY

genetic factors or environmental factors or infectious triggers can cause

activation of myelin reactive Th1/17 cells

causes infiltration into the central nervous system

causing blood brain barrier breakdown,immune cell recruitment

causes central nervous system tissue damage

causing neurological dysfunction

CLINICAL FEATURES

  1. affect any area of brain ,optic nerve,spinal cord
  2. uthoff's phenomenon
  3. blurred vision
  4. diplopia
  5. numbness
  6. parasthesia
  7. trigeminal neuralgia
  8. proprioception deficits
  9. L- Hermitte's sign
  10. trunk/limb weakness
  11. spascity hyperreflexia
  12. gait disturbance
  13. balance problems
  14. tremor
  15. ataxia
  16. depression
  17. anxiety
  18. genito urinary problems

DIAGNOSTICS:

  • no definite diagnostic examination is there
  • MRI
  • evidence of at least 2 affected different regions of the central white matter affected at different times
  • abnormal cerebro spinal fluid finding
  • checking of vitamin D level

LIGAMENT SPRAIN AND MUSCLE STRAIN

sprain strain
bruising around affected joint spasm in the affected muscle
tear in the ligament tear in muscle or tendon
a severely damaged ligament or joint capsule damaged muscles
pain is present pain is present
bone to bone area muscle to bone area
.

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