1 answer

I want you to formulate FOUR simple Case Study Questions (with Answers) from this given Research paper that I can

Question:

I want you to formulate FOUR simple Case Study Questions (with Answers) from this given Research paper that I can use in my Presentation.

Topic of the Research Paper: Mechanism of Hypertension and it's therapy targets

I am a Postgraduate Student. This is a Physiology Major Question. Please make use of this theoretical knowledge ONLY.

RESEARCH trasuuclion is nol clear. PIEnd PIE12 are rhanicayativat in chaels Lhat play crucial roles in several mechanotransduFig. 2. Baroreflex is abolished in nodase and petrasal g n systol c BF (6), HR (C and ba oref ex)s afte intravenous njectionRESEARCH I REPORT cibsuved a lauk drug-induced ADN activily in (IKO mice corrl[MLed 1เว wr mice (-131.9 1629 versus 5558 ± 12RESEARCH I REPORT 8. C, Rotertson et a,N. Engi J. iked 329, 449 155 channetrhodopsin-2 (Cht2) reporter mice toelimination of

RESEARCH trasuuclion is nol clear. PIEnd PIE12 are rhanicayativat in chaels Lhat play crucial roles in several mechanotransduction p cesses (o), PIEZ01 is prominently expressed in the carciovascular syst , 12 and PICZO2 is яbundant in vanons populations of sensory neurons (13-15). NEUROSCIENCE PIEZOs mediate neuronal sensing of blood pressure and the baroreceptor reflex pression in nodose andpetrosal ganglia, where baroreceptor cell bodies are located (). These gli are uscd wilh ah lher and wilh lhe ngular ganglion in mie. Piea and Pien2 were highly expressed in the nodose-petrusal-jugular ganglion couplex (NTJc) (Fg. 1A) Similar mm- bers of cellsere identified that highly expressed either Pieor Pieno2 exclusively (123 and 124 cells with ach ranseripl, rspelivly, ig A sall popla f neurs expressed both (43 double Peso-positive cells, or 14.8% of all Piea-expressing cells, 6mice, Fig. IB) Wei-Zheng Zeng, Kara L. Marshall, Soohong Min2, Ihab Daou, Mark W. Chapleau, Trancois M. Abboud, Stephen D. Liberles2, Ardem Patapoutian Activation of stretch-sensitive baroreceptor neurons exerts acute control over heart rate and blood pressure. Although this homeostatic baroreflex has been described for more than 80 years, the molecular identity of baroreceptor mechanosensitivity remains unknown. We discovered that mechanically activated ion channels PIEZO1 and PIEZO2 are together required for baroreception. Genetic ablation of both PiezoI and Piezo2 in the nodose and petrosal sensory ganglia of mice abalished drug-induced baroreflex and aortic depressor nerve activity. Awake, To test whether PiczoI and Pico2 are ex behaving animals that lack Piezos had labile hypertension and increased blood pressure variability, consistent with phenotypes in baroreceptor-denervated animals and humans with baroreflex failure. Optogenetic activation of Piezo2-positive sensory afferents was sufficient to initiate baroreflex in mice. These findings suggest that PIEZ01 and PIEZO2 are the long-sought baroreceptor mechanosensors critical for acute blood pressure control. pressed in baroreceptors, we performed retr grade labellug οί carulid sensory neuLuns. We into the carotid sinus beneath the serosal vessel covering. All CTE-positive neurons detected in the NPJc from eiglht mice were quautified for the presenc of Pie or Pin2 transcript (Fig., the initial increase in BP , 2). Compromised Cto F). Six aut of 95 retrogradely labeled cells lood pressure (BP) is tightly regulated to varied daily activity demands. Mechanisms premature death in humans with postmyocardial positive ig. B). Pieo-negative cells were likely chemoreceptors, which abundantly innervate term BP regulation. Within seconds andveral ion channels (s-9) hare been sug- the carotid sinus but do not require mecha- S that change blood volume control long-infarction and heart failure (3, 4). minutes, BP is initiated primrilyb rit to bareeeption. Howensitivity. No the 95 CTB-labeled c baroteceptors, a class ofstretch-sensitive neurons ever, substantial residual baroreflex is observed wilhin lhe nluluse and pelrusal ganglia with when tese than nels are ablaled ittlplicaLinx ย ll. vs hru al rrs.iluri urusa u Dowrre peripheral projections in the walls of the aorta the involvement of other sensory systems. None and carotid sinus (,2). An increase in BP stretcheecandidate ion channels have been directlyDpar ment of Call Bolhgy, Harvd Medical Schcol. Bostan baroreceptor nerve endings to trigger atferent activated by mechanical stimuli in heterologousMA C2I15, USA. 8Atbeud Crdivscula Resh Cerit lla A9207. LSA anid Hiophyi,aver Collee edicine, Uriversity of system. The conseqs of baroeceptor actimolecules to form a mechanosensory complex. vation are孔decrease in heart rate 〔HR), cardiac Furthermore, whether these channels are acting Cater, Iowa City, A 52242, USA output, and vascular resistance that counteract as sensos or play a role donstrean of mechan- Coesponding aurthor: Email: andemEscripps.edu .P1 & P2 (43 P1 only (123) . P2 only (124) All Piezo+ nodose cells . P1 only (8) -P2 only (8) All CTB+nodose cells 0.8 0.6 0.4 Carotid CTB 0. 0. 0.0 0.2 04 0.6 Piezo1 (fraction cell area) .0 0.2 0. 06 Piezo1 (fraction cell area) Piezo1 Fig. l. Expression of Pezol and Peza2 transcripts ın NPJC. A prnecik I'l n parer! les es nd cal H nu.rbe : 1 cells. 키· ie/12; P2. PiH. tr. CI :) F Pk of NPJc tisse after fluorescent in situ hyrid zation with crobes targeting Piezol (ed) and PiezoZ (cyan). Nuc ei are laceled w tn ",6- green] and Pezo transcript [(E) and (F), red and cyan]. Arrows indicate dian dino-2-phengi incloic DA7l, blue . Amo ws า ark doしble ק ozc-postivo a P ozo ocsit ve cell n(C) and (E and a Nizo positive cel in (D) cells. (B Quantification of trapt label ng a a as a fact on of to nkG) Quantification of Pieo trascript labeling area in CTB paitive cell area (n = 2SC ce ls, s x m ce). Eaen dat recesets one cell. 긱urr,bers cells (n-95 cells, eigt ce). Pezo-negative cells are not shown. oell codies back-abeled by carotid sins C B injections c) and D) Zeng et.. Siience 362. 404-407 018 26 Outober 2018
Fig. 2. Baroreflex is abolished in nodase and petrasal g n systol c BF (6), HR (C and ba oref ex)s afte intravenous njection of PE) knockout (KO) mice. Nuา1 be-of animals shown example before and after FE in ection. Expanded time sca e s า0wed bursts of ADN activ ty in onase with inclivicl al arterial pulses in W-Nc-mtograted ativ ty is ohse vedind0rice. *P005. *.0l,andn.s. isstatist cally ot signif cant by Lnpai ed Student's tteat: data are reaneSEM 긔ezo2 KO indicates F2cKn mice. Piezol Pie202 40 ndicates dKO mice
RESEARCH I REPORT cibsuved a lauk drug-induced ADN activily in (IKO mice corrl[MLed 1เว wr mice (-131.9 1629 versus 5558 ± 1234 normalized area under curve ofintegrated ADN activity, P

Answers

1. What are the distributions of Peizo 1 and 2 in the body

2. Which Peizo 1 or 2 is associated with BP regulations

3. What are methods can be used to confirm the hypothesis in the study

4. What are the pitfalls in the current study

.

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