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Here is the energy analysis of the hydronic heating system depicted in the diagram.

The boiler plant consists of two identical boilers, each having the following characteristics:

• Fuel: natural gas

• Burner Type: on/off

• Rated Output = 85 kW

• Rated Efficiency, nFL = 80%

The boilers operate in a “Lead/Lag” arrangement, i.e., Boiler 1 operates first to meet the load (up to its capacity), and Boiler 2 operates as necessary to meet any remaining load.

The pump and motor have the following characteristics:

• Flow Rate = 15 L/s

• Pressure Rise = 160 kPa

• Pump Efficiency = 60%

• Motor Efficiency = 88%

a) Estimate the shaft power (W) required by the pump

b) Estimate the fuel consumption rate of the boiler plant (m3 /hr) during a moment when both boilers are cycled on. Assume the heat content of natural gas is 10.33 kWh/m3 .

c) Consider a period when the heat extraction rates from the loop are as follows: Zone 1 = 30 kW, Zone 2 = 12 kW, Zone 3 = 22 kW. Estimate the heat load to be met by each boiler (kW) during this period.

Boiler Plant Output Zone 1 Boiler 2 Heat Distribution Loop Zone 2 Output Boiler 1 pump Zone 3 Natural Gas Electricity motor

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